Scientific Integrity

Codes of Ethics

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine/ Medical Review Officer Certification Council (MROCC)
Code of ethical conduct.

American Medical Association (AMA)
The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs maintains and updates the AMA's Code of Medical Ethics. First developed in 1847, the Code undergoes regular revisions and is the most comprehensive ethics guide for physicians.

American Psychological Association
Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.

Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council
The Australian Health Ethics Committee develops guidelines for health and medical research. This site has more information about the guidelines, the history of ethics in health research, and relevant documents for ethics and health research.

The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research
The basis for the ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and to develop guidelines that should be followed to ensure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles.

Canadian Medical Association (pdf)
Code of Ethics of the Canadian Medical Association.

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects
The guidelines relate mainly to ethical justification and scientific validity of research; ethical review; informed consent; vulnerability ­ of individuals, groups, communities and populations; women as research subjects; equity regarding burdens and benefits; choice of control in clinical trials; confidentiality; compensation for injury; strengthening of national or local capacity for ethical review; and obligations of sponsors to provide health-care services.

Hippocratic Oath
The Hippocratic Oath is perhaps the most widely known of Greek medical texts. It requires a new physician to swear upon a number of healing gods that he will uphold a number of professional ethical standards. It is not required by most modern medical schools.

Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
This society focuses on the interface of humans with their natural, residential, recreational, and vocational environments and the procedures, practices, and design considerations that increase a human's performance and safety at those interfaces.

International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE)
This society provides a forum for the discussion of problems unique to the study of health and the environment. With membership open to environmental epidemiologists and other scientists worldwide, ISEE provides a variety of forums for discussions, critical reviews, collaborations and education on issues of environmental exposures and their human health effects.

National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
The NASW code is intended to serve as a guide to the everyday professional conduct of social workers. NASW is the largest membership organization of professional social workers in the world.

Nuremberg Code
Directives for human experimentation.

World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki
Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

Content reviewed: May 7, 2012